Every day, Americans see more and more battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on the road. According to Fortune Business Insights, the electric vehicle market in the United States is expected to grow from $28.24 billion in 2021 to $137.43 billion in 2028. The reasons for the shift from internal combustion engine vehicles to BEVs are compelling : Electric vehicles are cleaner for the environment, cheaper to operate and offer the option of going through gas stations that currently sell fuel at $5 a gallon nationwide.
However, one drawback has made some consumers reluctant to purchase a BEV – a limited range. Unlike those many gas stations, EV charging stations can still be scarce, and recharging a BEV’s lithium-ion battery can take hours, making EVs impractical for some road trips at long distance.
Today, a researcher from the University of Kansas School of Engineering co-authored a study on Scientific reports propose a peer-to-peer system allowing BEVs to share the load between them while driving on the road by being paired with a cloud-based control system.
“When multiple EVs are on the way, they can actually share the load with each other during the race – they don’t need to stop to do that,” said Tamzidul Hoque, assistant professor of electrical engineering and computer science at KU. “A car can have an abundant load, and it may not need to go too far, and it can sell its load to another car – so there is an economic incentive. The other car, which travels a long distance, doesn’t have to recharge much, and not having to stop to recharge would cut their commute by several hours.”
A cloud-based system would match both BEVs in the same vicinity, likely along major highways. Like cyclists in a peloton, the two matched cars could travel in close proximity to each other, sharing the load along the way without needing to stop for hours at a charging station. The cars would drive at the same locked speed while the charging cables would automatically link the vehicles.
“We would have a complete cloud-based framework that analyzes the state of charge of all participating vehicles in the network, and based on that, the cloud tells you, ‘Hey, you can actually pair up with that car that’s nearby and share the load,” Hoque said. “All of this needs to be controlled by a cloud infrastructure, which has algorithms to efficiently load all the different BEVs.”
Hoque’s co-authors on the study are Prabuddha Chakraborty, Robert Parker, Jonathan Cruz, Lili Du, Shuo Wang and Swarup Bhunia from the University of Florida.
According to the researchers, the vehicles would be equipped with two different batteries for the peer-to-peer BEV charging plan: a primary lithium-ion battery like those common in today’s BEVs, and a second fast-charging battery used for the on the -go load. The fast battery, once charged, would then recharge the vehicle’s main battery.
“You don’t want the cars to stay connected for very long because another car might have to change its route and go somewhere else, and you might not have enough time to recharge,” Hoque said. “That’s why we developed the multi-level battery concept to reduce charging time.
“Just like in your computer, you have fast cache memory – but it’s expensive – so you have other kinds of high-capacity memory that are slower,” he said. “Similarly, for our batteries, we have incorporated this concept. You will have small fast-charging batteries, which will be used for peer-to-peer charging, and once this small battery is charged, you disconnect, and this small-charging battery sends the charge to the larger, slower battery.”
In high-density areas, the research team proposes deploying mobile charging stations – huge batteries mounted on trucks – that can charge multiple vehicles at once, akin to how small military aircraft can be refueled in flight by a tanker aircraft.
“These mobile charging stations would likely travel along major highways where they constantly go back and forth,” the KU researcher said. “There would be a number of them, so at any given time one Mobile Charging Station is moving around while another is in the station preparing for play. These Mobile Charging Stations can refuel or replenish the batteries of multiple vehicles simultaneously.”
The end result of the peer-to-peer system proposed by Hoque and colleagues would result in more convenience and less “range anxiety” for BEV owners and also a cleaner environment. Hoque and his co-authors used sophisticated computer modeling software to measure BEV charging needs as well as changes in the environmental impact of cars in a simulated peer-to-peer system.
“We used a simulator called SUMO which basically lets you create scenarios where a number of different electric vehicles are driving on a given highway, and then we brought in this concept of mobile charging or peer-to-peer charging and we We also introduced the concept of mobile charging stations in the simulation and I saw how far each of the cars could have gone without charging compared to peer-to-peer charging,” Hoque said. substantial reduction in the refueling needs of electric vehicles, so this is promising. We also did an analysis assuming that these mobile charging stations, which are the big trucks, are being charged using renewable energy, and found a big reduction in carbon emissions, so that’s also very promising .”
Hoque said the initial setup of a peer-to-peer charging infrastructure would likely require the support of a major BEV manufacturer, but could then grow organically.
“People who have EVs will be incentivized to sell fees and make extra money – those two things will work in parallel to develop this idea,” he said.
Lithium-ion battery charged to 60% in 5.6 minutes with anode driven
Prabuddha Chakraborty et al, Addressing Battery Electric Vehicle Range Anxiety with En-route Charging, Scientific reports (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-08942-2
Provided by the University of Kansas
Quote: Study shows electric vehicles could be charged on the go via a peer-to-peer system (June 17, 2022) Retrieved June 19, 2022 from https://techxplore.com/news/2022-06-electric-vehicles- peer-to-peer.html
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